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Basic Spanish Tutorial


Mar 2 2006, 01:12 AM (Post #1)
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Yes, I know. I'm an Arabian but I speak Spanish. It's strange to you, but I've got some Moorish ancestors. So hah.

Spanish is pretty easy if you speak English, as both of them trace many of their root words to Latin.


Personal Pronouns

Yo-I, me
El/Ella-he, him, etc./she, her, etc.
Nosotros-We, us
Ellos/Ellas-they (male)/they (female)
Ustedes-All of you, y'all
You-Tu

In Spanish, nearly all adjectives and nouns have a gender. This gender is either male or female, of course. Male adjectives and nouns generally end in o, but not always. Female adjectives end in an a. It's pretty simple, really.

All letters are pronounced like English except for the vowels and a few consonants:
a-ah (like saw) only
e-ay (like Hay) only
i-ee (like bee) only
o-short o
u- ooh (like a monkey) only
---
ch- same as English
h- always silent unless behind a c.
j- like an English H.
g- English 'gah' if before an a, o, or u. H sound if before the other vowels.
ll- like an English y
Q- 'ku' sound

Next up are verbs...
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Mar 4 2006, 05:13 AM (Post #2)
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Infinitive verbs in Spanish have two parts: the base, and the ending. The ending is eiter -ar, -er, or -ir. I.E., Exigir means "To demand."

The ending changes from form to form, although I'll start off the most basic: the present tense.

Correr (To run)
Yo-corro (I run)
Tu-corres (You run)
El/Ella-corre (He/She runs)
Nosotros-corremos (We run)
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes-corren (They run)

Escuchar (To listen)
Yo-escucho (I listen)
Tu-escuchas (You listen)
El/Ella-escucha (He/She listens)
Nosotros-escuchamos (We listen)
Ellos/Ellas/Ustededes (They listen)

Decir- (To tell, to say)
Yo-digo (I say, I tell)
Tu-dices (You say, you tell)
El/Ella-dice (He/She tells, he/she says)
Nosotros-dicemos We say, we tell)
Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes-dicen (They say, they tell)

Get the basic pattern here? When conjugating (forming) verbs, you drop the ending and put an -o if it's the yo form, an e if it's el/ella with an -er or -ir verb (-a if an -ar verb), es in the tu form with -ir, -er verbs (-as with an -ar verb) and so on through the forms.
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Mar 4 2006, 04:15 PM (Post #3)
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Cool ssmile.gif can you speak Catalan also?
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Mar 4 2006, 04:53 PM (Post #4)
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No... FROWN.GIF Only Spanish.

Unas palabras (Some words)

Desk-el pupitre
Notebook-el cuaderno
Eraser-el borrador
chalkboard-la pizarra
teacher's desk-el escritorio
Book-el libro
Bookbag-la mochila
pencil-el lapiz
pen-el boligrafo
Classroom-la sala
Door-La puerta
tape-la cinta
paper-el papel
a sheet of paper-una hoja de papel
fuerte- strong
perezoso- lazy
chistoso- funny
comico- funny
alto- tall
bajo- short
timido- shy
aburrido- boring
Chino- Chinese
Japones- Japanese
Arabico- Arabian

Unos Verbos (Some Verbs)

Escribir- To write
Leer- To read
Hablar- To speak
Escuchar- To listen
Correr- To run
Nadar- To swim
Caminar- To walk
Comer- To eat
Tomar- To take, to drink
Beber- To drink

Irregular Verb- Ser (To be)
Yo soy (I am)
Tu eres (You are)
El/Ella es (He/She is)
Nosotros somos (We are)
Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas son (they are)

Prepasiciones (Prepositions)
De- about, from, of
A- to, at (only in time, not in place)
Por- about, because of
Sobre- about
En- In, on
abajo de- underneath (object)
alto de- higher than (object)
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Mar 4 2006, 07:03 PM (Post #5)
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You might want to add an accent above the u in Tu because there is a difference when it comes to accents because it might mean the difference when addressing someone.

Can't wait when you start talking about conditional verbs and the like. sbiggrin.gif
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Mar 26 2006, 11:06 PM (Post #6)
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Hey dude, you finished with this? Or you got more to add?
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Mar 27 2006, 01:37 AM (Post #7)
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Oh, no. I'm not done...I just sort of forgot about it. ^^;

And Al, you're right. An accent over tu means you, but without the accent it means your.

Here's some more verbs and words, and an explanation between the two different 'To be' Spanish verbs, Ser and Estar.

Ser is used for identification, charateristics, and time. Identification is easy enough. Yo soy chico. I am a boy. I am identifying myself as a male. Identification is always done with a noun. You don't identify yourself as a green, for example.

Characteristics are adjectives. Yo soy alto-I am tall. However, ser is only uses for PERMANENT adjectives. You would not say "Yo soy aburrido" because that would not mean that you're bored, but that you're a boring person.

Time is self explanatory.

Estar, on the other hand, is used for everything that Ser isn't. This is location, conditions (angry, happy, sad etc.), and the progressive verb form.

First off, though, you'll need the conjugation of estar.

Yo-Estoy
Tu-Estas
El/Ella-Esta
Usted-Esta
Nosotros-Estamos
Ustedes/Ellos-Estan

The progressive form of a verb in English follows this form-"He is running." In Spanish, you would use the proper form of estar, and drop the ending of the verb, and put -iendo if it's an -er or -ir verb, and put -ando if it's an -ar verb. Taking our example English sentence, in Spanish it would be "El esta corriendo." Simple, no?
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Mar 27 2006, 01:47 AM (Post #8)
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Im taking spanish 1... But, I think you should edit how you put the irregular verbs because you don't ALWAYS has to use Nosotros somos because if you just put somos, that is all that you say when you say in spanish"we are". My uncle is puerto rican so, I've also gotten some help from him.
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Mar 27 2006, 01:51 AM (Post #9)
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Yeah, I know. Some people find it easier to learn the verb forms if they always put the pronoun with it. And you don't have to put the pronoun with any verb form, although it's generally better to put it with the El/Ella/Usted form and the Ustedes/Ellos form to help the person you're talking to understand who you're talking about.
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Mar 27 2006, 02:07 AM (Post #10)
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But thats different then Nosotros, Vosotros, Tu, and Yo. And your right about the El/Ella/Uds. and Ellos/Ellas/Udst. forms.
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Mar 27 2006, 02:41 AM (Post #11)
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Yeah. I never learned the vosotros forms, because it's "rarely used". I get by with Ustedes forms.
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Mar 27 2006, 04:55 PM (Post #12)
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Cool mate ssmile.gif just let me know when you're done, or if you get to a point where you want me to publish this as a 'Part 1' and you can continue working on a 'Part 2' ssmile.gif
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Mar 27 2006, 10:47 PM (Post #13)
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I'll probably work it into three parts, one for the present tense, one for the past tense, and one for the future tense.


New Words:
Soccer-El futbol
Baseball-El beisbol
Basketbol-El basquetbol
To swim-Nadar
Swimming pool-una piscina
Beach-la playa
Lake-el lago
Tree-el arbol
Forest-el bosque
To kill-Matar (Interesting note-Spanish bullfighters are called 'matadores', literally translated as: 'The killers.')
To die-Morir(ue)
Apple-una manzana
Meat-el carne
Pizza-la pizza (Prounounced exactly the same as English)
Computer-La computadora
To play-Jugar(ue)
To prefer-preferir(ie)

Ok, so here's the final part to Part One, present tense.

Two new verbs:

Gustar (to like)
--Gustaria (would like)
Encantar (really like/love)
--Encantaria (would really like/love)

A note about Encantar-it isn't used for love between people. That is the verb amar.

These verbs are special because they follow a different format than the rest of the verbs do. They require a special pronoun to be used, depending on who's doing the liking and what's being liked.

To say "I like running," you would say "Me gusta correr." Gustar and Encantar (among a few other verbs that we'll touch up on later) follow this form: the person who likes the object is replaced by a pronoun, and the thing that is being liked determines the form of gustar/encantar. Literally translated, our sample sentence means "Running pleases me." Hence, the pronoun. It's a little confusing at first, but it becomes easier with practice.

Indirect Object Pronouns:

Yo-Me
Tu-Te
El/Ella/Ud-Le
Nosotros-Nos
Ellos/Ustedes-Les

Sample sentences:

Me gustaria un borrador. (I would like an eraser.)
No me gustan los pupitres. (I don't like the desks.) *Note here, because desks is plural, Gustar becomes Gustan.
Te gustan las naranjas? (Do you like oranges?)
Nos gusta la pelicula. (We like the movie.)
Le gusta el beisbol. (He likes baseball.)

As you read the list of new words above, you may notice that some of the verbs, morir and jugar, have a (ue) in parenthesis behind them. That is because in the present tense, the last vowel before the ending (-ir, -er, -ar) is replaced with the letters in parenthesis. However, in the we form of nosotros, the letter is NOT replaced.

Jugar (To play)
Yo juego
Tu juegas
El/Ella/Ud juega
Nosotros jugamos (Stays the same here)
Ellos/Uds juegan

Morir (To die)
Yo muero (Of course, this form is rarely used.)
Tu mueras (Again, rarely used)
El/Ella/Ud muere
Nosotros moramos (Also rarely used.)
Ellos/Ellas mueren

Preferir (To prefer)
Yo prefiero (Notice that the second 'e' in preferir changes. That's because it's the last vowel before the infinitive ending.)
Tu prefieres
El/Ella/Ud prefiere
Nosotros preferimos (Again, the nosotros form does not change.)
Ellos/Ellas/Uds prefieren.
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Mar 28 2006, 09:56 AM (Post #14)
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Ya, but its still there. If you want, I can post for you in your credit the vosotros form of each verb.
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Mar 29 2006, 04:27 AM (Post #15)
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I'd like for you to do that...learning Spanish based on what non-Spaniards speak sucks, since I want to live in Spain someday.
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